[The first installment of this three-part series discussed the basics of memory management in .NET/Mono and Unity, while the second dived into the Unity Profiler and CIL to discover unwanted memory allocations in your C# code.]
This third post is about object pooling. We've hitherto focused on heap allocations. Now we also want to avoid unnecessary deallocations, so that while our game is running, the garbage collector (GC) doesn't create those ugly drops in frames-per-second. Object pooling is ideal for this purpose. I will present complete code for three kinds of object pools. (You can also find them as a gist on Github.)
Starting with a very simple pool class
The idea behind object pooling is extremely simple. Instead of creating new objects with the new operator and allowing them to become garbage later, we store used objects in a pool and reuse them as soon as they're needed again. The single most important feature of the pool - really the essence of the object-pooling design pattern - is to allow us to acquire a 'new' object while concealing whether it's really new or recycled. This pattern can be realized in a few lines of code:
Simple, yes, but a perfectly good realization of the core pattern. (If you're confused by the "where T..." part, it is explained below.) To use this class, you have to replace allocations that make use of the new operator, such as here...
... with paired calls to
New() and Store():
This is annoying because you'll need to remember to call Store(), and do so at the right place. Unfortunately, there is no general way to simplify this usage pattern further because neither the ObjectPool class nor the C# compiler can know when your object has gone out of scope. Well, actually, there is one way - it is called automatic memory managment via garbage collection, and it's shortcomings are the reason you're reading these lines in the first place! That said, in some fortunate situations, you can use a pattern explaind under "A pool with collective reset" at the end of this article. There, all your calls to Store() are replaced by a single call to a ResetAll() method.
Adding complexity to the ObjectPool class
I'm a big fan of simplicity in code as well as life, the universe and everything, but the ObjectPool class is perhaps a bit too simple in its current state. If you search around for object pooling libraries in C#, you will find a variety of solutions, some of them rather sophisticated and complex. So let's take a step back and think about what additional functions we might - or might not - like to find in a generic object pooling class.
- Many types of objects need to be 'reset' in some way before they can be reused. At a minimum, all member variables may be set to their default state. This can be handled transparently by the pool, rather than by the user. When and how to reset is a matter of design that relates to the following two distinctions.
- Resetting can be eager (i.e., executed at the time of storage) or lazy (executed right before the object is reused).
- Resetting can be managed by the pool (i.e., transparently to the class that is being pooled) or by the class (transparently to the person who is declaring the pool object).
- In the example above, the object pool 'poolOfMyClass' had to be declared explicitly with class-level scope. Obviously, a new such pool would have to be declared for each new type of resource (My2ndClass etc.). Alternatively, it is possible to have the ObjectPool class create and manage all these pools transparently to the user.
- Several object-pooling libraries you find out there aspire to manage very heterogeneous kinds of scarce resources (memory, database connections, game objects, external assets etc.). This tends to boost the complexity of the object pooling code, as the logic behind handling such diverse resources varies a great deal.
- Some types of resources (e.g., database connections) are so scarce that the pool needs to enforce an upper limit and offer a safe way of failing to allocate a new/recycled object.
- If objects in the pool are used in large numbers at relatively 'rare' moments, we may want the pool to have the ability to shrink (either automatically or on-demand).
- Finally, the pool can be shared by several threads, in which case it would have to be thread-safe.
Which of these are worth implementing? Your answer may differ from mine, but allow me to explain my own preferences.
- Yes, the ability to 'reset' is a must-have. But, as you will see below, there is no point in choosing between having the reset logic handled by the pool or by the managed class. You are likely to need both, and the code below will show you one version for each case.
- Unity imposes limitations on your multi-threading - basically, you can have worker threads in addition to the main game thread, but only the latter is allowed to make calls into the Unity API. In my experience, this means that we can get away with separate object pools for all our threads, and can thus delete 'support for multi-threading' from our list of requirements.
- Personally, I don't mind too much having to declare a new pool for each type of object I want to pool. The alternative means using the singleton pattern: you let your ObjectPool class create new pools as needed and store them in a dictionary of pools, which is itself stored in a static variable. To get this to work safely, you'd have to make your ObjectPool class multi-threaded. None of the multi-threaded object pooling solutions I've seen so far strike me as 100% safe, however...
- In line with the scope of this three-part blog, I'm only interested in pools that deal with one type of scarce resource: memory. Pools for other kinds of resources are important, too, but they're just not within the scope of this post. This really narrows down the remaining requirements.
- The pools presented here do not impose a maximum size. If your game uses too much memory, you are in trouble anyway, and it's not the object pool's business to fix this problem.
- By the same token, we can assume that no other process is currently waiting for you to release your memory as soon as possible. This means that resetting can be lazy, and that the pool doesn't have to offer the ability to shrink.
A basic pool with initialization and reset
Our revised ObjectPool<T> class looks as follows:
This implementation is very simple and straightforward. The parameter 'T' has two constraints that are specified by way of "where T : class, new()". Firstly, 'T' has to be a class (after all, only reference types need to be object-pooled), and secondly, it must have a parameterless constructor.
The constructor takes your best guess of the maximum number of objects in the pool as a first parameter. The other two parameters are (optional) closures - if given, the first closure will be used to reset a pooled object, while the second initializes a new one. ObjectPool<T> has only two methods besides its constructor, New() and Store(). Because the pool uses a lazy approach, all work happens in New(), where new and recycled objects are either initialized or reset. This is done via two closures that can optionally be passed to the constructor. Here is how the pool could be used in a class that derives from MonoBehavior.
If you've read the first post of this series, you know that the two delegates used in the definition of the ListOfVector3-pool are 'OK' from a memory standpoint. On one hand, they are not true closures but mere 'locally defined functions', and on the other hand, it doesn't even matter because the pool has class-level scope.
A pool that lets the managed type reset itself
The basic version of the object pool does what it is supposed to do, but it has one conceptual blemish. It violates the principle of encapsulation insofar as it separates the code for initializing / resetting an object from the definition of the object's type. This leads to tight coupling, and should be avoided if possible. In the SomeClass example above, there is no real alternative because we cannot go and change the definition of List<T>. However, when you use object pooling for your own types, you may want to have them implement the following simple interface IResetable instead. The corresponding class ObjectPoolWithReset<T> can hence be used without specifying any of the two closures as parameters (which I left in for the sake of flexibility).
A pool with collective reset
Some types of data structures in your game may never persist over a sequence of frames, but get retired at or before the end of each frame. In this case, when we have a well-defined point in time by the end of which all pooled objects can be stored back in the pool, we can rewrite the pool to be both easier to use and significantly more efficient. Let's look at the code first.
The changes to the original ObjectPool<T> class are substantial this time. Regarding the signature of the class, the Store() method is replaced by ResetAll(), which only needs to be called once when all allocated objects should go back into the pool. Inside the class, the Stack<T> has been replaced by a List<T> which keeps references to all allocated objects even while they're being used. We also keep track of the index of the most recently created-or-released object in the list. In that way, New() knows whether to create a new object or reset an existing one.