The History of Dragon Quest

While Final Fantasy can grab a lot of the limelight, the Dragon Quest/Warrior games make up one of the most important RPG franchises of all time - Gamasutra goes in-depth to chart the series' more than 20-year design evolution.

Role playing video games have been around since the advent of the home computer, with the likes of Aklabeth, Ultima, Wizardry, and many others. One of the most important of these is Enix's Dragon Quest (initially known as Dragon Warrior in America.) Created by Yuji Horii, Dragon Quest combined the overhead movement of Ultima with the first-person, random battles of Wizardy, and effectively created the Japanese RPG subgenre. It took Japan by storm, inspired dozens of clones (including Final Fantasy, its primary competitor), and remains one of the most important video games ever made.

By today's standard, it was a very simplistic game. You're a lone knight, off to retrieve a sacred artifact stolen by an evil warlord. Along the way, you'll fight some monsters (including a dragon or two, naturally), buy new weapons, and save a princess. The quest is pretty straightforward, you never gain any extra party members, and fights are primarily determined how much highly you've leveled your characters, as opposed to having any real strategy. And yet, it earned admiration all across Japan.

The Rise of Dragon Quest

So why, exactly, did Dragon Quest take off the way that it did? For starters, it had immediately accessible appeal due to the artwork supplied by Akira Toriyama, one of the most famous manga artists in Japan, responsible for phenomenons like Dr. Slump and Dragon Ball. Although the in-game graphics were primitive and barely resembled Toriyama's artwork, it provided a lot of character to the otherwise standard designs of western RPGs, which were heavily rooted in Dungeons & Dragons.

It was also one of the most in-depth games seen on the Famicom at the time. Back in 1986, if you wanted a complicated game, you needed an expensive PC. But while Dragon Quest isn't as remotely in-depth as any of those games, it offered significantly more exploration and play time than most other titles, which concentrated on arcade-style action. The soundtrack was also supplied by classically trained musician Koichi Sugiyama, who had previously carved out a living for himself writing background music for commercials. Although the synth of the 8-bit Famicom was simplistic, it supplied a rousing backdrop to the adventure, with a memorable main theme that may as well be Japan's national anthem.

Dragon Quest II Cover With its success came several sequels. DQII added a longer quest, more items, more spells, and most important, more characters. DQIII added several different character classes (similar to the original Final Fantasy, which had been released a few months earlier in Japan) and DQIV featured multi-chapter adventure that focused on different characters. Each game sold insanely well and established its reputation as one of the most popular franchises in the nation.

Despite the breakout success of Dragon Quest in Japan, it didn't receive nearly the same response in America. Enix didn't have any offices outside of their home country, so the original Dragon Quest was published by Nintendo of America in 1989, three years after the initial release. Nintendo had a breakout hit with The Legend of Zelda a few years earlier, despite fears that it may have been too complicated for yoDragon Warrior Townung American gamers, so they anticipated a similar success. They even included a mini-strategy guide that detailed the entire game, in order to groom newbies into the world of role playing.

Unfortunately, most of America simply ignored the title. The graphics and sound were too primitive. The interface was unwieldy. And perhaps most importantly, it lacked the action and puzzle solving that earned Zelda its success, instead replaced with slow-paced, turn-based combat, requiring hours of tedious leveling to advance. Nintendo vastly overestimated demand, and ended up giving away unsold copies for free with subscriptions to Nintendo Power. Because of this, it earned quite a lot of recognition from American NES gamers. However, it was quickly eclipsed by Final Fantasy (designed by rival publisher Square and also published in America by Nintendo), which featured far superior graphics and sound, and far deeper gameplay mechanics. The later iterations -- Dragon Warrior II, III and IV -- were also published in America by Enix themselves. They were all much improved over the original, but they kept the same ugly graphical style and clumsy interface, and came out far too late, where they competed against the 16-bit titles on Sega Genesis, NEC TurboGrafx 16 and -- in the case of DWIII and IV -- even the Super NES. As a result, they're some of the most sought after American released NES games (particularly III and IV.)

Dragon Quest III Battle Dragon Quest continued to proliferate in Japan, with two more sequels released for the Super Famicom, both of which added greater narrative and character customization. In 1997, Final Fantasy VII popularized JRPGs worldwide with its flashy graphics, which became model for a number of subsequent games. On the other hand, Dragon Quest VII, released in Japan three years later, was comparatively meager, using low budget graphics and barely any CG cutscenes at all. It was greeted with multi-million selling status in Japan, and severe indifference in America. Dragon Quest VIII was released in 2005, this time featuring far superior manga-style cel shaded graphics that finally rivaled Final Fantasy's high budget aesthetics. Once again, it took Japan by storm. In America, it sold significantly better than past installments, but nothing compared to the Japanese sales numbers, and certainly not enough to match Final Fantasy.

The Key Staff for Success

There are big reasons for this, of course. Throughout its life, Final Fantasy constantly reinvented itself, keeping certain aspects but bucking trends with each iteration. On the other hand, Dragon Quest has been strongly about keeping with tradition. All of them take place in the same European-style medieval world. All of them feature the same key staff members -- Horii, Toriyama, and Sugiyama. As a result, the method of storytelling, the characters, the battle system and the style of music is pretty much the same throughout. It's a series that prides itself not only on familiarity and nostalgia, but also in its consistency.

Dragon Quest IV Overworld And yet, all of these elements coming together is part of the charm. Although Akira Toriyama has a number of haters (thanks in part to the overproliferation of Dragon Ball Z), no matter what you think of his human character designs, he's a damn good monster designer. While Final Fantasy has featured a small handful of recognizable characters -- the Tonberry, the Cactaur/Sabotender, and I guess a few others -- Dragon Quest's foes are some of the most memorable of any RPG out there. The most prolific, of course, is the slime -- a silly little grinning drop of goo that's usually the first enemy you meet, and the weakest foe in the game. Since then, there have been tons of members of the slime family -- metal slimes, flying healing slimes, knight riding slimes, king slimes -- each getting progressively sillier looking.

With Dragon Quest V, gamers could actually recruit monsters in their party, a mechanic later seen in the Pokémon games, which has appeared in all subsequent Dragon Quest games in a variety of forms. The fact that the designs have been kept consistent through over twenty years of gaming is impressive. You could barely tell that Final Fantasy XII had any relation to the original Final Fantasy, but Dragon Quest VIII has many of the same monsters as the first Dragon Quest... although this time they're fully rendered with fully animated, fully 3D cel-shaded polygons, rather than static four color pixellated drawings that simply blinked when it attacked. Part of the nostalgia also comes from the sound effects -- the series has been using most of the same little 8-bit effects when you attack or dodge, or the little shuffling when you traverse stairs.

Dragon Quest V Cave The music plays as huge a part in Dragon Quest as any of the other aspects. All of the scores for the main games were composed by Koichi Sugiyama, a classicly trained musician with great expertise in writing sweeping, orchestral themes. Part of the problem, though, is that his soundtracks have always been limited by being in video games. The NES/Famicom games had pretty basic sound synth, even for the system, and even the CD-based games stuck with MIDI synth instead of streamed recordings. There are numerous Dragon Quest albums released in Japan, but they're all Symphonic Suite CDs, with all of the music arranged with a full orchestra. If the original soundtrack is included, it's usually only as a "Sound Story", which features sound effects to simulate someone playing the game. There's a huge difference between the in-game music and the Symphonic Suites -- for example, the overworld theme in the original Dragon Warrior is pretty simplistic and grating, but actually sounds pretty beautiful when played by a live orchestra. Listening to these CDs is almost a prerequisite to enjoying the actual in game music.

The Strengths of Storytelling

Dragon Quest is often derided for having poor stories and dull characters. While most of its plots are hardly epic or groundbreaking, that doesn't necessarily mean that they're bad. Furthermore, the few games that actually did have really good stories (V and VI) have yet to be, as of this writing, released in English. However, compared to a lot of other RPGs, Dragon Quest is certainly a bit simplistic in its narratives, as the plots rarely steps beyond the "go into evil dimension and kill ultimate bad guy" cliche. Similarly, the characters are usually somewhat uninvolving, with minimal backstories or personalities. Part of this also has to do with the simplistic graphics and never-changing world design -- it's hard to get attached to things that look like blurry messes of pixels. Toriyama's characters are generally pretty cool looking, but it's only recently that any of his artwork has actually appeared ingame.

Another huge part of the nostalgia of Dragon Quest is that it demands that the player use their imagination. Most of the Japanese instruction manuals had full color vignettes of the characters fighting monsters or generally hanging out -- similar to the artwork floating around from Chrono Trigger -- giving the player's mind something to flesh out the characters with. There have even been fully illustrated books released in Japan that retell the events using Toriyama-style artwork. Again, most non-Japanese gamers miss out on these things.

Dragon Quest VI Overworld But Dragon Quest's strength relies more on its episodic storytelling than the overall plot. Rather than concentrating on your party members, Dragon Quest focuses on the little stories of the NPCs you meet and the towns you explore. As heroes, you might reunite star crossed lovers, or amend the heart of distraught widowers, or even trade goods across kingdoms. The plus side is that none of the games feature characters like Final Fantasy's Squall or Tidus, whose personalities tend to put off certain players. It also tends to stay away from silly melodrama, or overly long cutscenes, so gamers sick of these overwrought tendencies may find plenty of solace in Dragon Quest.

The battle system, too, is criticized as being too straightforward. All of the battles are turn-based, with nearly all of them featuring random encounters. Additionally, all fights take place in the first person, and in most of the games, your party members remain invisible, offscreen. There are some quick visual effects and some narration of your attacks, but it's far from exciting. The upshot to this is that battles move along very quickly, which helps given the high random encounter rates. It seems simple at first, when you don't have any skills beyond simply hitting "Fight" over and over. However, there are tons of different spells and techniques to learn, especially in the later games, which makes for a remarkable amount of depth. Certain installments include some character class and customization systems, although they're not as involved as other games like Final Fantasy V.

Milking Nostalgia

But again, the charm comes from familiarity -- since Dragon Quest is basically the equivalent of video game comfort food, it's reassuring to play a game that doesn't require vast memorization of enemy abilities a la Shin Megami Tensei, or inate study of the gameplay systems a la anything by tri-Ace (Star Ocean, Valkyrie Profile). Gamers looking for something new and exciting definitely won't find it with Dragon Quest, but its straightforward nature does cut down on the clutter that so many other games have introduced. This is a huge part of Dragon Quest's appeal, especially with mainstream or lapsed gamers -- those who grew up with the old games should fit right into the new ones without having to pay attention to long tutorials, complex menus, or overly difficult combat.

Dragon Warrior VII There are other aspects that many have complained as feeling dated, although most of these exist for a reason. For example, save points are rare -- in most games, you only come across them by visiting churches or castles, and you can't save on the overworld map. They never recharge your health either -- you'll need to visit an inn for that. Got a dead party member? You'll still need to head back the church and pay a fee -- items that resurrect fallen players usually aren't found in later in the games, if they exist at all. But as aggravating as these are, they exist for a reason -- namely, they add an element of tension that's missing from most modern RPGs. Yuji Horii has been described as a big gambler; Dragon Quest is filled with casino mini-games, and it's no coincidence that winning a battle feels a lot like winning a jackpot, especially with the slot machine-esque victory noise. Without the crutches of save points, wandering into deep caverns feels more and more like a gamble, as you're slowly getting weaker with each step, becoming drained of health and magic and curative items. Do you call it a day and head back to town to gear up? Or do you hedge your bets and try to make it all the way to the end? In the end, exploring is a lot more involving when death is on the line.

As a concession, dying isn't nearly as harsh as other games. Other than a few odd dead end moments found throughout the series, there is no "Game Over" in Dragon Quest. Rather than forcing you to reload a previous save, you're simply transported back to the closest church, with all of the equipment and experience you've gained, but only half your cash. In most of them, you can even store your gold in a bank, protecting you from losing your money. So even after facing death, you don't necessarily come out of it empty-handed.

Like Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest has a number of spin-off titles separate from the main series. Unlike Final Fantasy, most of these don't suck. Some of these include the dungeon crawling Mysterious Dungeon series (featuring Torneko from DQIV and Yangus from DQVIII), the Pokémon-esque Monsters series, the Zelda-esque action Rocket Slime games, and the Swords series, birthed from a toy sword that connected to the TV and expanded on the Wii. Additionally, almost all of the games in the main series have been remade to varying capacities, whether featuring improved graphics or being redesigned for portable systems.

Just beware that there are storyline spoilers for the series from here on -- tread lightly if you're sensitive to these kinds of things.


Dragon Quest

(aka Dragon Warrior)
Famicom / MSX (1986, Japan / 1989, North America)
Super Famicom (1993, Japan only)
Game Boy Color (1999)

The Game

By modern standards, the original Dragon Warrior is definitely archaic. At the beginning of the game, you're a simple hero who's charged with defeating the diabolical Dragonlord and reclaiming the treasured Ball of Light. Along the way, you'll need to slay a dragon to save the kidnapped princess. And that's pretty much it as far as the plot goes. You can only control a single character in battle, and can only fight a single enemy at a time. This is the only NES Dragon Warrior with battles that actually feature backgrounds -- the others are fought against a black backdrop.

There are only a handful of spells -- including two attack and two healing spells -- and the only real strategy involves grinding so you're strong enough to take down more powerful foes. About all you can do is grind until your character reaches level 30, at which point your hero's stats are maxed out.

The graphics are ugly, the movement is clumsy, and the interface is cluttered with far more menus than necessary. It's not enough to move over to a treasure chest to open it -- you need to step on top of it, open a menu, and then select the "Check" command. The same thing goes with talking to people, opening doors and using stairs. The few caves you explore are completely dark, requiring that you bring a torch along. And even then, it only lights a single block around your character, so you're still stumbling around blindly, at least until you get the spell later in the game that increase your sight. If you run out of either, you need to stumble around in the pitch black until you find an exit. You can only save the game at the king's castle at the beginning of the game, although you can still heal at inns found throughout the land.

Dragon WarriorStill, in spite of its age, there are a few cool touches. Once you rescue the princess, you carry her from her jail cell all the way back to the castle, which feels pretty triumphant. Amusingly enough, the Dragonlord's castle is visible from right across the river at the beginning of the game, but you need to travel the whole world in order to finally gain entrance. When you finally reach the Dragonlord, he gives you the option to switch sides and join him on his evil conquest. If you accept, he puts you to sleep, and the game freezes, requiring you to reset the console to start again.

The Localization

When Nintendo published the game in America three years later in 1989, they made a number of upgrades to make it a little less irritating. The graphics were improved slightly, adding extra details like shoreline tiles, which make it look a little bit less awful. It always looked kind of silly -- all of the characters looked like they were walking even when they were standing still -- but the original Japanese version was even more ridiculous. In the original version, the hero always faces downward regardless of what direction you're moving in. It also caused other issues, like when you select "Talk" from the menu, you need to specify the direction of the person you want to talk to. In the English version, the hero has been redrawn and can now face in any of the four directions when walking -- so even though it's cumbersome as it is, it was much worse in the original Japanese version. The Japanese version also used passwords, which were replaced with a much simpler battery backup save system for the American release.

Dragon Warrior

Nintendo put a lot of effort into its English translation, hoping that the massive success it found in Japan would be replicated overseas. All of the dialogue, including the battle narration, is written in old-style Elizabethan English (i.e. "Thou hast killed the slime!"), which might sound a little bit pompous and silly, but adds quite a bit of character. The translation is also significantly better than practically any other NES game out there, probably because there's a lot more text here than most video gamers were used to at the time. The spells were given completely different names -- "Hoimi" became "Heal" and "Gira" became "Hurt", with the more powerful spells becoming "Healmore" and "Hurtmore". Many of the other names have changed too -- the legendary hero "Loto" became known as "Erdrick", and almost all of the town names are completely different. "Radatome Castle" became "Tantegel Castle", "Radatome Town" became "Brecconary", "Garai" became "Garinhaim", "Maira" became "Kol", and many others. "Alefgard" is the same in both versions.

The entire series has featured "puff puff" massage girls (in Dragon Quest, "pafu pafu" is onomonopaea for a girl rubbing her breasts in someone's faces, although in more general terms, it's a girl juggling her own boobs), and this one featured a girl in the town of Maira/Kol offering a fun time for 50G. This was naturally removed from the NES game. The Toriyama-illustrated cover was ditched in favor of some generic fantasy artwork of some little knight fighting a huge dragon. Much like The Legend of Zelda, Nintendo was unsure that its audience would understand this relatively complicated game, so it was also packaged with a full strategy guide that outlined the entire quest and mapped all of the mazes.

Different Versions

Dragon Quest SFC

Dragon Quest was originally released for the Famicom, and ported to the MSX shortly thereafter. It's pretty much the same as the Famicom version, except your character always remains in the center, and the screen shifts around him whenever you move. It's choppy and a bit distracting. The graphics and music are pretty similar, though there are some vague differences in quality. The MSX version has since become quite a collector's item.

Years later, Dragon Quest I was ported to the Super Famicom (released on the same cart with Dragon Quest II) using the engine from Dragon Quest V. This version, naturally only released in Japan, features all of the improvements made for the American version of the game, like the battery save, along with enhanced graphics and sound. A lot of the music has been extended so it's not quite as simplistic, which is definitely a plus. You also walk down stairs automatically and have a general "action" button to open treasure chests and talk to people. It still looks ancient, but at least it utilizes more colors. It makes grinding less annoying, since it increased the amount of experience and gold after each battle, and it also includes the stat enhancing seeds, which can be found by exploring in various spots. However, certain bosses have been made tougher, like the dragon guarding the princess. It also adds the vault found in the later games.

The Super Famicom port was also used as the basis for the Game Boy Color release, which was also bundled together with the second game. The graphics are similar, but obviously heavily downscaled for the portable platform. Still, it looks completely different than the original NES game, and arguably a bit better. Your characters also walk much faster. Fortunately, this version was translated into English, and reinstates many of the aspects that were censored in the NES release. "Erdrick" was also changed back to "Loto". There's also a brand new intro cinema.


Dragon Quest II: Akuryou no Kamigami

(aka Dragon Warrior II)
Famicom / MSX (1987, Japan / 1990, North America)
Super Famicom (1993, Japan only)
Game Boy Color (1999)

Dragon Warrior II (the Japanese subtitle translates to Pantheon of Evil Gods) takes place 100 years after the original, although the general plot is pretty much the same -- an evil warlock by the name Hargon is wreaking havoc on the land, and has destroyed the neighboring Castle of Moonbrooke. As the Prince of Midenhall, it's up to you to gather a group of warriors and exterminate this evil from the land.

The Story

In Japan, Dragon Warrior II released nearly a year after the the first game, and improves practically every aspect. For starters, there are now three playable characters: The Prince of Midenhall (Lorasia in the original Japanese and later English versions), The Prince of Cannock (Samaltria), and the Princess of Moonbrooke. The Prince of Midenhall is a descendant of the great Erdrick. He's a physical fighter, without any magical abilities at all. The Prince of Cannock is also off adventuring, and you need to catch up with him. He's weak but is the first character you get that can use magic. The Princess of Moonbrooke has been cursed to take on the form of a dog, but when you cure her, she joins the party.

Dragon Warrior II BattleThe Game

The battle system has been expanded so you now fight multiple enemies at once. To accommodate all of the monster graphics on the screen at the same time, the battle background are now completely black, as opposed to the landscapes of the original game. However, there are some strange quirks to this system -- you can only target monsters by group, as opposed to targeting them individually. So if you're facing three slimes and choose to attack them, your character will randomly pick one to attack. If the enemy survives and you attack again, you may end up fighting a different slime, making it impossible to focus all of your strikes on a single foe.

And like the original Final Fantasy games, the game doesn't autoselect a new target once a foe is killed, so it's very possible to waste turns if you don't spread out your attacks. The balance feels off too -- when you run across a new party member, they'll start on Level 1, leaving them easy prey in many battles. Even after you level them up, the Prince of Cannock and Princess of Moonbrooke have extremely weak defenses compared to the hero. Due to the expanded roster, item management is even more of a hassle. Each character can only hold eight items, including equipment and plot items. By the end of the game, you have precious little inventory space for herbs and other things.

The world map is significantly larger than Alefgard, with many more towns, castles and dungeons. In fact, the entire kingdom of Alefgard appears in Dragon Warrior II as an island. Although it's significantly smaller than the original game, the basic layout is the same, and you get to revisit a few old locations. This includes Dragonlord's castle, where you can find the descendent of the evil lord, who actually helps you out this time around. The first Dragon Warrior only had a single key -- this time, there are three different keys to find, and even more treasure troves to unlock.

Dragon Warrior II DungeonThankfully, there's now more than one location to save your game -- there are now several castles, each one with a king that can record your progress. Although you still need to do a lot of walking to get to places, there's now an item that quickly warps you back to your last save spot. At one point, you even get a ship to sail around the seas. Unlike Final Fantasy, where you could only dock your ship in certain ports, you can land anywhere with your ship in Dragon Quest II, allowing to you practically explore the entire game world. If a party member is killed in combat, they need to be taken to a church (or "House of Healing" in the NES version) to be resurrected. These places can also cure poison or curse status ailments, which are also new to Dragon Quest II.

The dungeons are now quite a bit more advanced and actually look distinct, compared to the bland red brick dungeons of its predecessor. The torches have been ditched, and you can now see your immediate surroundings when exploring caves. This was kept for all subsequent Dragon Quest games on the NES. There are several towers where you can fall down pits or jump off the edge, tossing you down to lower floors.. You can also find lottery tickets which will let you play games of chance in certain towns, and is the first of many implementations of gambling found in the Dragon Quest series.

The graphics are roughly on the level as the English version of Dragon Warrior -- that is to say, better than the Japanese DQ, but still pretty primitive. The music quality has improved

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